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供應商質量管理與控制的有效方法

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供應商質量管理與控制的有效方法
Supplier quality management and control of the effective method
供應商提供的商品持續地滿足采購方的要求,采購方應根據實際情況,采取以下有效的管理與控制方法。
Suppliers to provide products continue to meet the procurement requirements, the purchaser shall according to the actual situation, take the following effective management and control method.
1)        制定聯合質量計劃
1) the development of joint quality plan
采購現代商品,不僅購買商品本身,而且還要購買供應商在產品設計、制造工藝、質量控制、技術幫助等方面的能力。要有效地購買供應商的這種能力,需要把供需雙方的能力對等協調起來,協調的辦法就是制定聯合質量計劃。聯合質量計劃中一般要包括經濟、技術、管理等三個方面。
Procurement of modern commodity, not only to buy the commodity itself, but also to purchase supplier in product design, manufacturing processes, quality control, technical assistance and other abilities. In order to effectively purchase supplier in this capacity, the need to supply and demand sides of the ability to peer coordination, coordinated approach is to develop joint quality plan. Joint quality plan to include economic, technology, three aspects of management.
(1)經濟方面。這方面的內容包括進行價值分析,以便協助采購者從合同中取得最大的價值;對成本、質量和交貨期等方面進行綜合平衡,以便實現最佳成本;對使用費用進行審查,使產品整個壽命周期成本降到最低水平。在有些情況下,共同制定經濟方面的計劃可以修正合同中的擔保條款或現場服務的條款。
( 1) the economic aspects. The content includes the value analysis, in order to assist the buyer from contract to achieve maximum value; on the cost, quality and delivery and other aspects of comprehensive balance, in order to achieve the best cost; to use costs are reviewed, so that the whole product life cycle cost is reduced to the lowest level. In some cases, jointly developed the economic aspects of the plan can be modified in the contract of guarantee clause or field service terms.
(2)技術方面。需要制定一系列的技術計劃,這涉及到采購方和供應商雙方的各自職能。主要包括:
( 2) the technical aspects. Need to develop a series of technical plan, which relates to the buyer and supplier of both their respective functions. Mainly include:
①產品設計。在這方面的計劃是搞清技術條件要求的含義,識別對產品的安全性和功能起重要作用的質量特性,擬定關于可靠性及其他有關的要求,必要時還要提供感官檢驗標準。
Product design. In this aspect of the plan is to make clear the meaning of technical requirements, identification of product safety and function play an important role in the quality characteristics, drawn on for reliability and other relevant requirements, necessary to provide sensory inspection standard.
②工藝設計。這方面的計劃是指在供應商內分配生產作業,共同使用高、精、尖設備,明確關鍵工序的參數及其含義,建立識別和追查的體系。當采購方認為雙方共同協商的工藝設計對它的獨特需要是必不可少時,可以提出要求,沒有得到采購方的認可,事先不得擅自改變工藝設計和操作方法。
The process of design. This plan is defined in the supplier distribution in production operations, the common use of high, fine, sharp equipment, clarify the key process parameters and its meaning, establish the identification and tracing system. When the purchaser that mutual consultation process design for its unique needs is essential, can request, no purchaser approval, without changing the prior process design and method of operation.
③生產。這方面的計劃是指對人員培訓和考核的要求,如,工序裝置的標準,加工控制程序表,設備維護保養表,資料和文件的要求。
The production of. This plan is refers to the personnel training and assessment requirements, such as, process device standards, process control program, equipment maintenance, information and documentation requirements.
④檢驗與測試。這方面的計劃是指涉及計量、測試方法的標準化,測試設備的能力及定期檢驗,此外還涉及質量標準。
The inspection and testing. This plan is refers to the measurement, test method standard, testing equipment capacity and regular inspection, moreover also relates to the quality standard of.
(3)管理方面。這方面的計劃主要是識別必不可少的管理活動,并且建立明確的責任制來進行活動。此外,還要進行溝通買賣雙方渠道的工作,建立迅速、靈敏的信息反饋系統,變單向交流溝通為雙程式多向溝通。在復雜的合同中,各種程序和制度也相應地變得復雜起來,需要繪制流程圖和規定特殊的條款,以保證溝通路線暢通無阻。
( 3) the management of. This program is mainly to identify essential management activities, and establish a clear responsibility to carry out activities. In addition, but also for buyers and sellers to communicate channel work, establish rapid, sensitive information feedback system, variable one-way communication program for two ways of communication. In the complex contracts, various procedures and system correspondingly became complicated, need to draw a flow chart and the provisions of special terms, in order to ensure the smooth operator communication line.
2)向供應商派常駐代表
2) to the supplier sent resident representative
為直接掌握供應商商品質量狀況,可由采購方向供應商派出常駐代表,其主要職責是向供應商提出具體的商品質量要求,了解該供應商質量管理的有關情況,如質量管理機構的設置,質量體系文件的編制,質量體系的建立與實施,產品設計、生產、包裝、檢驗等情況,特別是對出廠前的最終檢驗和試驗要進行監督,對供應商出具的質量證明材料要核實并確認,起到在供應商內進行質量把關的作用。對具有長期穩定的業務聯系,建立固定的購銷關系,采購批量大、技術性強、對質量要求嚴格的供應商,采購方還可派出質檢組常駐供應商,不但對商品質量進行全程、全面地檢查和監督,而且還要監督買賣合同的全面執行,保證及時生產、及時發貨,滿足采購方各方面的要求。同時質檢組還可向供應商反映已購產品在使用過程中的問題和對產品新的要求,促使供應商改進和提高產品質量并不斷開發用戶所需要的新產品。
Direct supplier product quality status, by purchasing direction supplier sent resident representative, its main duty is to put forward specific commodity supplier quality requirements, the supplier quality management of the situation, such as quality management institution, compiling documents of quality system, quality system establishment and implementation, product design, production, packaging, testing and so on, especially to the factory before the final inspection and testing are to be monitored, the supplier quality issued documents to verify and confirm, played in the supplier quality check function. On the long-term stability of business contacts, establish a fixed relationship between the buying and selling, purchasing large quantities, technical strong, strict quality requirements to the suppliers, buyers can also sent inspection group permanent supplier, not only on the quality of goods for full, comprehensive inspection and supervision, and supervision of contract full implementation, ensure timely production, timely delivery, to meet the various requirements of purchaser. At the same time the QC group can also reflect the purchased products from suppliers in the use process problem on products and new requirement, push supplier to improve and enhance product quality and continuous development of user needs new products.
此方法是供應商質量管理與控制常用的一種方法,其優點主要有以下幾點。
This method is the supplier quality management and control is a kind of commonly used method, its main advantages are the following.
(1)對供應商商品質量進行全程、全面地檢查和監督,能及時發現問題,便于供應商及時返工,降低了供應商的質量成本。
( 1) the supplier product quality full, comprehensive inspection and supervision, to find the problem in time, to facilitate suppliers timely rework, reducing the supplier's quality cost.
(2)從源頭發現問題,便于快速反應,對企業獲得優質采購商品有利。
( 2 ) from the source to find problems, to facilitate rapid response, high-quality procurement of goods for the enterprise to obtain favorable.
(3)可根據本企業實際使用情況及進貨質量控制IOC情況,專門嚴格檢查某個項目,針對性強。
( 3) according to the enterprise actual situation and quality control of IOC, devoted to the rigorous examination of a project, strong pertinence.
定期或不定期監督檢查
Regular or irregular supervision and inspection
(4)及時掌握供應商生產狀況的變化
( 4) grasp the supplier status changes
由于企業內外部環境的變化,供應商的生產狀況必然也會隨之變化。采購方應及時掌握其變化的情況,對生產發生的一些重大變化,應要求供應商及時向采購方報告。如產品設計或結構上的重大變化、制造工藝上的重大變化、檢驗和試驗設備及規程方面的重大變化等,供應商都應向采購方主動報告說明情況。采購方接到報告后,要認真分析情況,必要時應到供應商那直接了解,主要應弄清對產品質量的影響。在多數情況下供應商變更產品設計,采取新材料、新設備、新工藝是為了提高商品的質量和生產效率,對保證商品質量是有益的。但是也必須注意到,任何改變都有一個適應的過程,在變更的初始階段容易造成商品質量的不穩定。這就需要通過加強最終檢驗和試驗來把關。
Due to the change of environment of Ministry of enterprise inside and outside, the supplier's production status will change. The purchaser shall grasp its change situation, the production of some of the major changes, should require the supplier to purchase party report. Products such as the design and structure of the major changes, major changes in the manufacturing process, inspection and test equipment and procedures of major change, the supplier shall actively report to explain the situation to purchaser. Buy side after receiving the report, should be analysed seriously, when necessary, to understand the direct suppliers, mainly should make clear the effect on product quality. In most cases the supplier product design, adopt new materials, new equipment, new technology to improve product quality and production efficiency, to ensure the quality of the commodity is useful. But also we should pay attention to, any kind of change is a process of adaptation, in the initial stage of change is easy to cause the instability of product quality. This need by strengthening the final inspection and testing to ensure.
3定期排序
3 regular sort
排序的主要目的是評估供應商的質量及綜合能力,以及為是否保留、更換供應商提供決策依據。排序的一般準則如下:
Sort the main purpose is to assess the supplier 's quality and comprehensive ability, as well as for whether to retain, replacement of suppliers to provide basis for decision making. Sort of general guidelines are as follows:
(1) SOA供應商質量保證批合格率:一般要求不能低于95%。
( 1) the SOA supplier quality assurance qualified rate of not less than 95%: General requirements.
(2)IOC批合格率:一般要求不能低于95%。
( 2) the IOC batch passing rate of not less than 95%: General requirements.
(3)商品投入后的質量問題:一般要求總的工序直通合格率不低于85%(因產品不同而有較大差異)。
( 3) the quality of commodity inputs: General requirements general process through the qualified rate of not less than 85% (due to different products and have bigger difference ).
(4)回復糾正行動報告CAR的態度和速度:需及時響應,對問題做出令人信服的分析,并有糾正預防措施(或更改作業文件,或進行工序改善等)。
( 4) corrective action report CAR attitude and velocity: a timely response, to make a compelling analysis, and corrective and preventive action ( or change a file, or process improvement etc.).
(5)交貨期履行情況:能積極履行合約,并對延期交貨做出合理說明。
( 5) delivery performance: can actively performing the contract, and to make reasonable description of delayed delivery.
(6)審核結果:審核的分數至少在60分以上。
( 6) results of audits: audit scores at least 60 points.
(7)與本企業人員的配合:在各項事務中與需方積極配合,協作良好。
( 7 ) and the enterprise staff to cooperate in various affairs with: the active cooperation, coordination and good.
以上項目乘積作為總分,供排序用。排序周期一般為每季度一次或半年一次。
The above project product as total score, for sorting by. Ranking cycle is generally once a quarter or half a year.
4幫助供應商導入新的體系和方法;
4 help suppliers into a new system and method;
為有效地控制采購商品的質量,采購方應對供應商導入自己多年總結出的先進質量管理手段和技術方法,主動地幫助、指導供應商在短時間內極大地提升質量管理水平和技術水平,增強質量保證能力。采購方對供應商給予一定的幫助對供應商是有利的,對采購方自己也是有利的。對供應商的幫助是多方面的,主要目的不是擴大生產能力而是提高商品質量。以提高質量為中心,可幫助供應商組織有關人員的技術培訓,進行設備的技術改造,實現檢驗和試驗的標準化、規范化。貫徹ISO9000族標準,爭取質量體系認證,幫助供應商導入6Sigma系統等。對供應商的幫促重點是加強商品質量的薄弱環節,解決影響商品質量的關鍵問題。
In order to effectively control the procurement of goods quality, the purchaser with the supplier to import their own years summed up the advanced quality management methods and techniques, to help, guide supplier in a short period of time, greatly enhance the quality management level and technical level, enhance the capacity of quality assurance. The purchaser to the supplier to give some help to the supplier is favorable, the purchaser was favorable. Supplier for help in many aspects, the main objective is not to expand production capacity but to improve the quality of the goods. In order to improve the quality as the center, to help suppliers to organize relevant personnel and technical training, equipment technical reformation, to realize the inspection and test standardization, standardization. The implementation of ISO9000 standard, strive for quality system certification, to help suppliers into 6Sigma system. The supplier to help promote the key is to strengthen the weak links in commodity quality, solve the key problems affecting product quality.

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